The Digital Classroom

I chose to focus my Assignment 2 on Digital Media in Education.   I am lucky that my mum Leeanne King, pictured in the interview has had a lot of experience in teaching, but also in the implementation of new technologies into curriculum. I wanted to capture the experience of someone working within the industry- the interview was initially 7 minutes long so I unfortunately had to cut a huge amount of it, but I think it still adds value to the video and breaks up scenes.

It initially took me some time to find appropriate scholarly sources that I could recall upon in my video. I was hoping to find material that spoke more about digital media in the classroom from a teacher’s perspective- highlighting the negative aspects- but this was quite difficult. Most publications seemed to only focus on the benefits, and how they assist learning rather than what this means for our teachers.

I initially wanted to interview a student, but despite obtaining verbal permission they were unavailable last minute. In hindsight, although their contribution could have been valuable, I ended up having an extra 7 minutes of content that I needed to cut already.

I made a decision to be quite visible on camera- I have studied presenting and am currently undertaking Journalism units also, so wanted to demonstrate what I have learnt and potentially create something that could be viewed by future employers.

I decided to use the same song that I used for my earlier podcast assignment. I thought this could be good to group them as a series by using the same track. In terms of imagry, all images were sourced using creative commons, with the exception of screenshots from my social media and the Office of the eSafety Commissioner website.

I used Adobe’s Premiere Pro to edit my video. I have used this previously but I STILL find it quite time consuming and often confusing, however I wanted to persist with it as I view it as a great skill to have.

An issue I encounted was organising a time to film. Having access to the primary school through my mum was a wonderful help but I had to plan a time to film around certain hours and when students weren’t present. On filming day, half way through the interview my memory card was full; and despite the fact that I thought I was prepared for everything- I didn’t bring an additional card. This meant that I couldn’t film as much B-roll as I wanted and would have to re-film the interview in it’s entirety in another location- since there wasn’t any more time available to go back to the school.  Frustrating!

I think it helped that I had previously written a script. I roughly memorized the lines for the walking shots and used an auto cue app on my iPad for any of the seated chat to camera scenes. I would have liked to not have to rely on the auto cue, but I found everything was just too wordy to fully memorise. I wouldn’t have done the topic justice had I of improvised, and i didn’t want to make any mistakes, especially when dealing with scholarly material.

I also used my iPhone to record secondary audio and voice-over- this helped when layering b-roll and when the sound from the video camera wasn’t sufficient.

In hindsight I think I could have made my over-all topic more specific, but was initially held back because I couldn’t find scholarly sources that resonated with me. Had I allowed more time for research- a more concise topic would have been possible.

Word Count: 602


Resources:

Gabriel, R 2014 21st Century Classroom, Lead + Learn Press, Colorado

Junco, R 2014 Engaging Students through Social Media, John Wiley & Sons Incorporated,  San Francisco

Dichev, C, Dicheva, D 2017, ‘Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review’, International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education,  vol. 14, no. 1, p1-36,  doi: 10.1186/s41239-017-0042-5

‘The Economist asks: Is ed tech transforming education?’ 2016, The Economist,
4 February, https://goo.gl/xBOi9O

Office of the Childrens eSafety Commissioner, ‘Young and Social Online‘, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/research-library

Images and Audio:

Classroom  by PAL LTER (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Textbooks by Scott Barkley (CC BY 2.0)

Distracted child studying by amenclinicsphotos ac (CC BY-SA 2.0)

MSP Social Media Team by MSP Social Media Team Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Collaboration by Media Mike Hazard  (CC BY 2.0)

Staples1 by Virginia Department of Education  (CC BY 2.0)

Student iPad 014 by Brad Flickinger  (CC BY 2.0)

eSafety Commissioner 2016, Young and Social online, infographic p3 & 14, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/research/library

eSafety Commissioner 2017, Education Resources, website screenshot, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources

eSafety Commissioner 2017, Primary Resources, website screenshot, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources

Music Credit: Argofox – Doctor-vox-level-up (Argofox – Doctor-vox-level-up) (CC BY 3.0)


My broader ALC708 unit related activity:

My contribution to the unit online activity kind of fell off the wagon for the second half of the trimester.  My beloved laptop died and I didn’t invest enough time using another technology source.  I think because part of my day to day job involves so much time interacting online (in quite a different capacity), I often need time out for my sanity. I understand how important it is to be visible online and I think this is something I need to push myself to do if I want to have a successful career in digital media in the future.

Word Count: 100 words


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(Not so) secret identities

I am not who you think I am.

You see, behind this blog and the various other student profiles of mine, I lead another online life.  Like most other people my age I have a Private Facebook account under my full legal name– that is nothing unusual.

Mainly for friends, family, and the odd friend of a friend, its main purpose is to keep up to date with the lives of those who I am interested in.

A user who is browsing an acquaintance’s profile is likely to see an idealized version of that individual’s life that makes the person seem very happy, likable, and successful (Vogel et al. 2014).

I would have to agree with this – looking on my profile you find me mainly sharing my “life highlight” moments that would be of interest to those who know me.


If you were to google Jess Rae King however you’d find a couple of social media profiles- Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat and a Website.  (I think it’s important to note the fact that these platforms aren’t what you would consider academic or professional- they suit the modelling industry but some posts would potentially be NSFW and you’re not going to find a Linkedin account under Jess Rae King, for example.)

Hey! Ho!Let's Go!
Social Media Platforms under the @JessRaeKing username. Created with Canva.

Again this in itself is nothing unusual- it’s the way in which I self present on these platforms. When I am not studying I work full-time in the fashion industry as a “Plus Size” model.  In the last couple of years the importance of being present and seen online as a model has become the biggest selling point when it comes to getting booked by a client.  My agency Bella Management, like many others, feature each models up to date social media statistics on their website.  In this post I am going to evaluate a couple of aspects of my “Jess Rae King” social media identity (Instagram in particular)  and how I used it in a way that is appropriate for the fashion industry.


What’s in a name?

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Screenshot of What’s in a name? created with Prezi, retrieved 7 April 2017

I often think of life after modelling and get nervous at the prospect of a future employer in the digital world googling me and finding shots of me in various states of undress.  Professionally (moving forward in my future digital career) I go by Jessica King, but I wonder if it is dissimilar enough from Jess Rae King, to avoid digging up my entire modelling portfolio. Perhaps something I should have thought about earlier…

Maybe she’s born with it. Maybe it’s an Instagram filter.
Authenticity is a tricky one when you’re dealing with someone who is literally selling themselves.  Everyone likes to think that their Instagram is representing their offline self truthfully, but is that really possible when you’re selling yourself as a product? It would make sense to put your best foot (or selfie!) forward even if that’s not always an accurate representation of the offline you.  However in the case of the online body positive community it can actually be a good thing to highlight what are often considered as your flaws.

This particular post that I uploaded received a very high level of engagement despite the fact that I uploaded a photo that wouldn’t be considered attractive according to beauty standards.  The ironic thing is, in the caption I addressed this very thing.  The idea that our social media identities are simply highlight reels.  Because of the success of this post (it went on to get reposted by various accounts and appear in an article by Revilist) and others before it that followed a similar structure- I began to upload these types of posts more frequently. I discovered that posts featuring what would be considered self-deprecating imagery, or posts that address common/relatable insecurities amongst women alongside body focused shots worked really well in my feed.  I guess you could say I learnt to manipulate, manufacture and stage manage my authenticity online in a way, as Graxian explains (cited in Poletti & Rak 2014, p.75).  I am posting imagery that I wouldn’t normally post because it has proven to be engaging, and in turn boost my follow count, which at the end of the day, in my business = MONEY.

Got Burnt
In 2015 I entered into an online working relationship with a high profile Australian tanning product company.  They would send me products in exchange for me posting about their brand and products on Instagram.  At the time I was living in London and happily accepted the products because a: Who doesn’t love free stuff, b: They were products that aligned with my brand and I had used them previously.  We agreed that I would post one photo per product and they would then repost those photos on their social media platforms (Instagram & Facebook).  Some months into this relationship I received a call from a couple of close friends saying they had seen selfies that I had taken (using the product) printed on a full page in two different well known Australian magazines.

The ease in which they had swiped a photo from my Instagram account and printed it without my permission astounded me.  Upon escalating it through my management they offered a weak excuse-  and blamed it on their intern.  This experience has taught me the importance of establishing ground rules and contracts when entering into commitments with brands online.  It just shows that there is always a risk when you are putting your imagery out there- someone might just go ahead and use your photos without permission.  I have found this to be one of the biggest downfalls of attempting to build up a larger online following (particularly on Instagram). Although it has allowed me many benefits in terms of furthering my modelling career, ‘the broader social consequences will be less freedom and personal control’ (Waite 2013, p.5).

 It is clear that my current @jessraeking identity is a relatively successful and suitable online construction for the modelling world; however my biggest concern would be how its digital footprint will affect me when I no longer have use for it.  With the accessibility of information on the internet, I’m thinking my best option will be a name change and to move very, very far away.

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DragonCon14-001 by Vanessa Blaylock (CC BY 2.0)

WORD COUNT
1063


My broader ALC708 related online activity

Earlier in the semester I identified that I wasn’t tweeting as much as I should.  I increased my Twitter presence, but there is always room for improvement in other areas too.  For example-  I struggle with engaging in discussion with my peers online, out of the fear that my contributions are irrelevant.  I also avoided creating a Linkedin account- I don’t come from a professional industry like a lot of my peers, and felt it was pointless. My opinion now is that it’s better to be seen online, and I think there are ways in which I could create a profile that is relevant and suitable for my career in digital media.


References:

Vogel, E, Rose, J, Roberts L & Eckles, K 2014, ‘Social Comparison, Social Media, and Self-Esteem’, Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 206–222, retrieved  5 April 2017, PsycARTICLES.

Smith, S and Watson, J 2014, ‘Virtually Me: A Toolbox about Online Self-Presentation’, in Poletti, A and Rak, J, Identity Technologies: Constructing the Self Online, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 70-95

Waite, C 2013, The Digital Evolution of an American Identity, Routledge, New York.
*Consent form from Evan Pottenger attached.

Ethics & Mojo’s

Imagine you are in a car driving at 60 km’s per hour, when some lunatic passes at least 20km’s faster than you. The more they speed the greater the chance of a dangerous collision right? Well it’s also the same with the new age of Journalism.  Burum & Quinn (2015, p.265) explain that speed involves risk. The speed at which journalists are expected to work and produce content has increased ten fold- mobile phones and technology are making it easier and quicker than ever before to send information out to audiences.

What legal issues can arise from this?

Mobile phones can be taken just about anywhere- the problems with this is that we don’t always know when we are being filmed, and depending on where you are in the world this could be perfectly legal or completely unethical.

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Paparazzi by Mike Schmid (CC BY-SA 2.0)

With the speed in which Journalists are having to upload their stories, they are bound to make some errors along the way.  Burum & Quinn (2015, p.266) reiterate the importance of knowledge and training in the field of ethics for the Journalists of today.

What is ethical training?

Many news organisations have their own code of ethics which they encourage.  One of the main unions in Australia for Journalists is the MEAA.  In their words they explain what is considered important in regards to ethics and the legalities for Journalists under their union.

Respect for truth and the public’s right to information are fundamental principles of journalism. Journalists search, disclose, record, question, entertain, comment and remember. They inform citizens and animate democracy. They scrutinise power, but also exercise it, and should be responsible and accountable.

In the speed in which the news is disseminated- especially now for mobile journalists, it must be ensured that ethics are also considered.  It doesn’t matter if you break the story first, if you also happen to break many laws whilst doing so.


References:

Burum, I, Quinn, S 2015, MOJO: The Mobile Journalism Handbook : How to Make Broadcast Videos with an iPhone or iPad, Focal Press, Burlington, MA.

Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance 2016, MEAA Journalist Code of Ethics, Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance, date retrieved 2 October 2016, https://www.meaa.org/meaa-media/code-of-ethics/.

#ALJ710 Journalists are getting social

There is immense pressure on Journalists these days to be able to do it all.  Not only are they expected to competently write dense, feature articles, it is expected that they film and edit their own content and now- confidently handle the many new social media platforms that are thrust upon them (and us!) almost daily.

As to the notion of scoops and breaking news, a lot of tips or leads these days are from the web or what’s “trending” in social networks like Twitter. (Alejandro, 2010)

News these days is now being broken on social media, with tips and scoops coming from platforms such as Twitter.  Gone are the days of journalists having the time to form a full story.  We as an audience are determining how and when we get our news and because of this journalists are having to pick up the pace.  The risk of waiting means that journalists may be out-scooped by competitors or, even worse- a citizen journalist!

Check out a podcast I recorded of examples of how Twitter has been used to break major news stories from around the world.

What’s the problem with social media as a breaking news form?

The concern is, if anyone can break the news on social media- who are we to believe?

This new style of ‘citizen journalism’ can be a double edged sword at times and one of the clearest recent examples of this occurred on the site Reddit, as the search for the Boston Bombing suspect was taking place. Because of unchecked facts, a manhunt for the wrong man – who eventually wound up being found dead from an apparent suicide – began. (DeMers, 2013)

How can Journalists avoid making this mistake?

Verify, verify, verify
Aside from using reverse image searches. Steve Buttry (2013) wrote a comprehensive blog post on the ways in which Journalists can verify information from social media. He suggests the following:

  • Check the time of the tweet.
  • Check for photos that help validate the story.
  • Check the location of the user.
  • Check previous tweets to fill in the gaps in a story.
  • Attempt to connect with the user (phone, email) to validate information.

This list is by no means exhaustive, so check out the link for helpful tips from Buttry.

It is a journalist’s role to ensure that any information is fact-checked and verified before release.  But it’s clear that this does not always happen .


References:

Alejandro, J 2010, ‘Journalism in the age of Social Media’, Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper, University of Oxford, retrieved 23 August 2016, retrieved from : < https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Journalism%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Social%20Media.pdf >

DeMers, J 2013, ‘How Social Media Is Supporting a Fundamental Shift in Journalism’, The Huffington Post, weblog post, retrieved 23 August 2016, < http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jayson-demers/how-social-media-is-suppo_b_3239076.html >

Buttry, S 2013, ‘How to verify information from tweets: Check it out’, The Buttry Diary, weblog post, retrieved 20 August 2016, < https://stevebuttry.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/how-to-verify-information-from-tweets-check-it-out/ >

 

#ALJ710 Journalists living for live streaming

I remember the first time I heard about live streaming. It was about 18 months ago and I was walking in a runway over in London.  As we walked out for the finale a lady in the front row- her face shielded by her phone yelled out “Do something exciting, you’re on my Periscope!” I later found out that a couple thousand people tuned in to see my stunned mullet face in that moment. Nearly two years later- and it’s difficult to avoid hearing about live streaming apps and their worldwide domination.

 The benefit of live streaming for celebrities and social media influencers is clear, but how does this platform assist journalists?

Trendkite (2016) explains that the immediacy is one of the big factors.  Journalists are able to pick up the camera and begin filming through their app of choice, almost as soon as they get wind of a story.  They can forget about lugging around expensive filming equipment and time consuming post production editing- live streaming is not so much about the look of the piece- but the content itself. Rod Atkins from the BBC  explains that more often than not, content is lead by comments and questions from the audience.

I go in with a single big idea I’m interested in hearing the audience’s views on. That way, the content is 100 percent led by the issues they raise. (Atkins, 2016)

Trendkite also explains that the technology itself provides helpful insights such as followers and views to determine the success of engagement.

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Twitter’s Periscope App TODAY Show NBC by Anthony Quintano. (CC BY 2.0)

So how could it go wrong?

As mentioned in one of my previous blog posts from my Social Media unit, the issue is that anyone with a smart phone and an internet connection can now attempt to take on the role of trained journalists. Trendkite explains that it’s just about working harder than the citizens to ensure that they are adding value and credibility. The downside to the immediacy of live-streaming means that journalists don’t necessarily have the time to fact check everything before they go to air.

As events and stories unfold instantly without giving sufficient time to synthesize information and compose quality work, journalists will have to adapt and learn what is essentially a new skill. Reporters have always had to balance the need to get information out quickly with the need to get it right, but with live streaming they’ll be doing it in real-time and without a net. (Trendkite, 2016)

Once again journalists must be willing to change with the times- adopting the use of various tech tools as they are released to avoid getting left behind and conquered by the new wave of “try-hard journo’s” with an iPhone.


References:

Unknown, 2016, ‘How Live Streaming Platforms Are Changing Journalism‘, Trendkite, weblog post, 29 March, 19 September 2016, < http://www.trendkite.com/blog/how-live-streaming-platforms-are-changing-journalism >

Davies, J 2016, ‘Six months in: What the BBC has learned using Facebook Live’, Digiday UK, weblog post, 9 June, 19 September 2016, < http://digiday.com/publishers/six-months-bbc-learned-using-facebook-live/ >

 

Breaking News in 140 characters or less

Before the internet, breaking the news was strictly the job of professionals who had extensive training, access and control of resources that us mere mortals did not. But now, the world of journalism could not be more different.  Do you have a smart phone and access to an internet connection? Well, congratulations you could now be a gate-keeper of a wealth of information and knowledge or- simply a pile of poorly researched, inaccurate dribble!

Posting on a website, blog or Facebook page – even writing an email – is a new form of publishing…(social media) enables the amateurisation of communication.  To sum up the position: the profession of journalism becomes obsolete because the social media have democratised publishing. (Dimitrov 2014, p.4)
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Journalists At Play by Lisa Padilla (CC BY 2.0)

At the end of 2015 there were roughly 12.9 million internet subscribers in Australia, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The audience is now forgoing the more traditional methods of news in favour of the world of online.  News organisations and journalists themselves have been forced to adapt, or simply bust. Our changing requirements as readers, in combination with the saturation of technology is now defining what we are given by the news organisations. Kolodzy (2012, p.1) explains that the youth of today are favouring social media platforms such as Facebook, Google, YouTube, Twitter and Instant messaging as a way to receive news.  And as a youth of today (26 is still youthful!!), I would have to agree. My initial sources of news come from updates I see on my Facebook and Twitter news-feeds on my phone.

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1201 sn3 by studio tdes (CC BY 2.0)

Alejandro (2010, p.9) explains that the concept of scoops and leads have changed with the development of social media. A journalist’s tips for a story are now coming from the What’s Trending sections of Twitter or Facebook.  We as an audience are becoming increasingly impatient, we want our information in real time– forcing journalists to increase their pace ten-fold. We are now fed snippets of information as journalists themselves discover it.  The risk of waiting until a full story is formed, is that News outlets may find themselves out-scooped by competitors- or even worse, a member of the general public.  How embarrassing!

There have been many instances of social media breaking news before news organisations can even dream of having a full article printed.  Check out my podcast for some notable examples of this.

So what’s the big deal?

Screen Shot 2016-08-23 at 3.56.12 pm
2012, ‘How Social Media is Replacing Traditional Journalism as a News Source’- Source: Social Media Today

There are a number of concerns when we look to social media as a reliable news source. We see in the above graphic from Social Media Today, that reporting breaking news in 140 characters or less (Twitter, for example) can be quite limiting when it comes to telling a story.  As mentioned earlier, when everyone has access to reporting news on social media, communication can be amateur– so who are we to believe? This has happened many times when we have been fed reports of celebrity deaths that turn out to be nothing but hoaxes.  Huffington Post, in their article about journalism changing at the hands of social media, mention the importance of checking facts.

This new style of ‘citizen journalism’ can be a double edged sword at times and one of the clearest recent examples of this occurred on the site Reddit, as the search for the Boston Bombing suspect was taking place. Because of unchecked facts, a manhunt for the wrong man – who eventually wound up being found dead from an apparent suicide – began. (DeMers, 2013)

The benefits of social media as a news source are simple.  Anyone with access to these platforms now has a voice and the potential to report news. It’s a quick and immediate way to release news, and unlike bulky cameras and recording equipment- mobile phones can go just about anywhere.

Sambrook (cited in Alejandro 2010, p.42) says ‘Bearing witness is a journalist’s job. This is something technology cannot provide’.  Despite the positives of social media as a breaking news form, we must not lose sight of the value of a journalist’s credibility.


References:

Dimitrov, R 2014, ‘Do social media spell the end of journalism as a profession?’, Global Media Journal: Australian Edition, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p1-16. 16p

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2015, Internet Activity, Australia, December 2015, cat. no. 8153.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics,  retrieved 23 August 2016, < http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/8153.0/ >

Kolodzy, J 2012, ‘What’s old is new, what’s new is old’, ‘Practicing Convergence Journalism’, Routledge, p.1&5

Alejandro, J 2010, ‘Journalism in the age of Social Media’, Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper, University of Oxford, retrieved 23 August 2016, retrieved from : < https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Journalism%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Social%20Media.pdf >

Morejon, R 2012, ‘How Social Media is Replacing Traditional Journalism as a News Source’, Social Media Today, weblog post, retrieved 23 August 2016, <http://www.socialmediatoday.com/content/how-social-media-replacing-traditional-journalism-news-source-infographic >

DeMers, J 2013, ‘How Social Media Is Supporting a Fundamental Shift in Journalism’, The Huffington Post, weblog post, retrieved 23 August 2016, < http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jayson-demers/how-social-media-is-suppo_b_3239076.html >

Podcast References:

In Soundcloud Description.

#ALJ710 Why you’ll never lose your mojo-Mobile Journalism is here to stay.

Do you have a smart-phone with a reliable internet connection? Congratulations, you too could become a mobile journalist!

Mojo offers ways for people to become more digitally literate and powerful across a wide range of media. Citizens can become empowered to live and work in more digitally literate communities and environments. (Burum & Quinn 2015, p11)

The benefits for the general public are clear, they are empowered and given a voice through the use of their smartphones.

Viasen Soobramoney from Independent Media South Africa has the opinion that all journalists should and will become mobile journalists. Soobramoney, who was behind the first mojo newsroom in South Africa,   explained that changing the opinions of those in a traditional newsroom was initially challenging- but it’s something that needs to be embraced to cope with the changing landscape (Scott 2016).

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Filming in Teuton by Allissa Richardson (CC BY 2.0)

Logistically, mojo newsrooms are seeing the benefit of their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Mojo’s are recording and editing content in a much quicker amount of time- essentially cutting out the middle man.  They don’t have to worry about expensive cameras and recording technology, or setting up bulky equipment, organising large crews, or travelling back to the newsroom to file and edit footage- it can now be done by one journalist, all on the one device.
Check out how one Teacher is inspiring her students through the use of MOJO:

A heart-warming tale from South Africa- Journalist Allissa Richardson set up a MOJO lab in South Africa, teaching 10 HIV-positive young women how to film and edit their own content on iPod’s:

In the worlds of the Zulu Princesses that I taught, many of the girls were trapped instead in cycles of violence, self-doubt and the urge to cry out — even when no one was listening. Then, along came the digital age, and a tiny device gave them a voice. (Richardson 2012, p24)

So it all sounds pretty positive- what’s the problem then?

Despite this technology being accessible to just about anyone, we can’t forget the fact that just because you can do something- doesn’t mean you should. Burum and Quinn (2015, p.12) explain that in the hands of an amateur- it would simply result in rubbish, useless content.

Another issue is that quality can potentially be compromised in an effort to get the content recorded and online as quickly as possible to break the news first. Burum and Quinn (2015, p.18) explain that this is not much of a concern; audiences will be happy to put up with something of average quality, if the topic itself is interesting and newsworthy.


References:

Burum, I, Quinn, S 2015, MOJO: The Mobile Journalism Handbook : How to Make Broadcast Videos with an iPhone or iPad, Focal Press, Burlington, MA.

Scott, C 2016, ‘How mobile journalism is rising in popularity with journalists around the world’, Journalism.co.uk, weblog post, 29 April, retrieved 18 August 2016, < https://www.journalism.co.uk/news/how-mobile-journalism-is-rising-in-popularity-around-the-world/s2/a633170/ >

Allissa Richardson’s MOJO Lab 2012, YouTube, Bryant and Allissa Richardson, 28 November, retrieved 18 August 2016, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rd2yJpekVhU >

Richardson, A 2012,’Mobile Journalism: a model for the future’,  Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 21 June, p24, retrieved 18 August 2016,   Vol. 29 Issue 10, Academic OneFile