The Digital Classroom

I chose to focus my Assignment 2 on Digital Media in Education.   I am lucky that my mum Leeanne King, pictured in the interview has had a lot of experience in teaching, but also in the implementation of new technologies into curriculum. I wanted to capture the experience of someone working within the industry- the interview was initially 7 minutes long so I unfortunately had to cut a huge amount of it, but I think it still adds value to the video and breaks up scenes.

It initially took me some time to find appropriate scholarly sources that I could recall upon in my video. I was hoping to find material that spoke more about digital media in the classroom from a teacher’s perspective- highlighting the negative aspects- but this was quite difficult. Most publications seemed to only focus on the benefits, and how they assist learning rather than what this means for our teachers.

I initially wanted to interview a student, but despite obtaining verbal permission they were unavailable last minute. In hindsight, although their contribution could have been valuable, I ended up having an extra 7 minutes of content that I needed to cut already.

I made a decision to be quite visible on camera- I have studied presenting and am currently undertaking Journalism units also, so wanted to demonstrate what I have learnt and potentially create something that could be viewed by future employers.

I decided to use the same song that I used for my earlier podcast assignment. I thought this could be good to group them as a series by using the same track. In terms of imagry, all images were sourced using creative commons, with the exception of screenshots from my social media and the Office of the eSafety Commissioner website.

I used Adobe’s Premiere Pro to edit my video. I have used this previously but I STILL find it quite time consuming and often confusing, however I wanted to persist with it as I view it as a great skill to have.

An issue I encounted was organising a time to film. Having access to the primary school through my mum was a wonderful help but I had to plan a time to film around certain hours and when students weren’t present. On filming day, half way through the interview my memory card was full; and despite the fact that I thought I was prepared for everything- I didn’t bring an additional card. This meant that I couldn’t film as much B-roll as I wanted and would have to re-film the interview in it’s entirety in another location- since there wasn’t any more time available to go back to the school.  Frustrating!

I think it helped that I had previously written a script. I roughly memorized the lines for the walking shots and used an auto cue app on my iPad for any of the seated chat to camera scenes. I would have liked to not have to rely on the auto cue, but I found everything was just too wordy to fully memorise. I wouldn’t have done the topic justice had I of improvised, and i didn’t want to make any mistakes, especially when dealing with scholarly material.

I also used my iPhone to record secondary audio and voice-over- this helped when layering b-roll and when the sound from the video camera wasn’t sufficient.

In hindsight I think I could have made my over-all topic more specific, but was initially held back because I couldn’t find scholarly sources that resonated with me. Had I allowed more time for research- a more concise topic would have been possible.

Word Count: 602


Resources:

Gabriel, R 2014 21st Century Classroom, Lead + Learn Press, Colorado

Junco, R 2014 Engaging Students through Social Media, John Wiley & Sons Incorporated,  San Francisco

Dichev, C, Dicheva, D 2017, ‘Gamifying education: what is known, what is believed and what remains uncertain: a critical review’, International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education,  vol. 14, no. 1, p1-36,  doi: 10.1186/s41239-017-0042-5

‘The Economist asks: Is ed tech transforming education?’ 2016, The Economist,
4 February, https://goo.gl/xBOi9O

Office of the Childrens eSafety Commissioner, ‘Young and Social Online‘, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/research-library

Images and Audio:

Classroom  by PAL LTER (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Textbooks by Scott Barkley (CC BY 2.0)

Distracted child studying by amenclinicsphotos ac (CC BY-SA 2.0)

MSP Social Media Team by MSP Social Media Team Flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Collaboration by Media Mike Hazard  (CC BY 2.0)

Staples1 by Virginia Department of Education  (CC BY 2.0)

Student iPad 014 by Brad Flickinger  (CC BY 2.0)

eSafety Commissioner 2016, Young and Social online, infographic p3 & 14, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/about-the-office/research/library

eSafety Commissioner 2017, Education Resources, website screenshot, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources

eSafety Commissioner 2017, Primary Resources, website screenshot, Australian Government, retrieved 24 May 2017, https://www.esafety.gov.au/education-resources/classroom-resources

Music Credit: Argofox – Doctor-vox-level-up (Argofox – Doctor-vox-level-up) (CC BY 3.0)


My broader ALC708 unit related activity:

My contribution to the unit online activity kind of fell off the wagon for the second half of the trimester.  My beloved laptop died and I didn’t invest enough time using another technology source.  I think because part of my day to day job involves so much time interacting online (in quite a different capacity), I often need time out for my sanity. I understand how important it is to be visible online and I think this is something I need to push myself to do if I want to have a successful career in digital media in the future.

Word Count: 100 words


Advertisements

(Not so) secret identities

I am not who you think I am.

You see, behind this blog and the various other student profiles of mine, I lead another online life.  Like most other people my age I have a Private Facebook account under my full legal name– that is nothing unusual.

Mainly for friends, family, and the odd friend of a friend, its main purpose is to keep up to date with the lives of those who I am interested in.

A user who is browsing an acquaintance’s profile is likely to see an idealized version of that individual’s life that makes the person seem very happy, likable, and successful (Vogel et al. 2014).

I would have to agree with this – looking on my profile you find me mainly sharing my “life highlight” moments that would be of interest to those who know me.


If you were to google Jess Rae King however you’d find a couple of social media profiles- Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat and a Website.  (I think it’s important to note the fact that these platforms aren’t what you would consider academic or professional- they suit the modelling industry but some posts would potentially be NSFW and you’re not going to find a Linkedin account under Jess Rae King, for example.)

Hey! Ho!Let's Go!
Social Media Platforms under the @JessRaeKing username. Created with Canva.

Again this in itself is nothing unusual- it’s the way in which I self present on these platforms. When I am not studying I work full-time in the fashion industry as a “Plus Size” model.  In the last couple of years the importance of being present and seen online as a model has become the biggest selling point when it comes to getting booked by a client.  My agency Bella Management, like many others, feature each models up to date social media statistics on their website.  In this post I am going to evaluate a couple of aspects of my “Jess Rae King” social media identity (Instagram in particular)  and how I used it in a way that is appropriate for the fashion industry.


What’s in a name?

Screen Shot 2017-04-07 at 1.32.53 pm
Screenshot of What’s in a name? created with Prezi, retrieved 7 April 2017

I often think of life after modelling and get nervous at the prospect of a future employer in the digital world googling me and finding shots of me in various states of undress.  Professionally (moving forward in my future digital career) I go by Jessica King, but I wonder if it is dissimilar enough from Jess Rae King, to avoid digging up my entire modelling portfolio. Perhaps something I should have thought about earlier…

Maybe she’s born with it. Maybe it’s an Instagram filter.
Authenticity is a tricky one when you’re dealing with someone who is literally selling themselves.  Everyone likes to think that their Instagram is representing their offline self truthfully, but is that really possible when you’re selling yourself as a product? It would make sense to put your best foot (or selfie!) forward even if that’s not always an accurate representation of the offline you.  However in the case of the online body positive community it can actually be a good thing to highlight what are often considered as your flaws.

This particular post that I uploaded received a very high level of engagement despite the fact that I uploaded a photo that wouldn’t be considered attractive according to beauty standards.  The ironic thing is, in the caption I addressed this very thing.  The idea that our social media identities are simply highlight reels.  Because of the success of this post (it went on to get reposted by various accounts and appear in an article by Revilist) and others before it that followed a similar structure- I began to upload these types of posts more frequently. I discovered that posts featuring what would be considered self-deprecating imagery, or posts that address common/relatable insecurities amongst women alongside body focused shots worked really well in my feed.  I guess you could say I learnt to manipulate, manufacture and stage manage my authenticity online in a way, as Graxian explains (cited in Poletti & Rak 2014, p.75).  I am posting imagery that I wouldn’t normally post because it has proven to be engaging, and in turn boost my follow count, which at the end of the day, in my business = MONEY.

Got Burnt
In 2015 I entered into an online working relationship with a high profile Australian tanning product company.  They would send me products in exchange for me posting about their brand and products on Instagram.  At the time I was living in London and happily accepted the products because a: Who doesn’t love free stuff, b: They were products that aligned with my brand and I had used them previously.  We agreed that I would post one photo per product and they would then repost those photos on their social media platforms (Instagram & Facebook).  Some months into this relationship I received a call from a couple of close friends saying they had seen selfies that I had taken (using the product) printed on a full page in two different well known Australian magazines.

The ease in which they had swiped a photo from my Instagram account and printed it without my permission astounded me.  Upon escalating it through my management they offered a weak excuse-  and blamed it on their intern.  This experience has taught me the importance of establishing ground rules and contracts when entering into commitments with brands online.  It just shows that there is always a risk when you are putting your imagery out there- someone might just go ahead and use your photos without permission.  I have found this to be one of the biggest downfalls of attempting to build up a larger online following (particularly on Instagram). Although it has allowed me many benefits in terms of furthering my modelling career, ‘the broader social consequences will be less freedom and personal control’ (Waite 2013, p.5).

 It is clear that my current @jessraeking identity is a relatively successful and suitable online construction for the modelling world; however my biggest concern would be how its digital footprint will affect me when I no longer have use for it.  With the accessibility of information on the internet, I’m thinking my best option will be a name change and to move very, very far away.

15088907036_587810a336_z
DragonCon14-001 by Vanessa Blaylock (CC BY 2.0)

WORD COUNT
1063


My broader ALC708 related online activity

Earlier in the semester I identified that I wasn’t tweeting as much as I should.  I increased my Twitter presence, but there is always room for improvement in other areas too.  For example-  I struggle with engaging in discussion with my peers online, out of the fear that my contributions are irrelevant.  I also avoided creating a Linkedin account- I don’t come from a professional industry like a lot of my peers, and felt it was pointless. My opinion now is that it’s better to be seen online, and I think there are ways in which I could create a profile that is relevant and suitable for my career in digital media.


References:

Vogel, E, Rose, J, Roberts L & Eckles, K 2014, ‘Social Comparison, Social Media, and Self-Esteem’, Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 206–222, retrieved  5 April 2017, PsycARTICLES.

Smith, S and Watson, J 2014, ‘Virtually Me: A Toolbox about Online Self-Presentation’, in Poletti, A and Rak, J, Identity Technologies: Constructing the Self Online, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, pp. 70-95

Waite, C 2013, The Digital Evolution of an American Identity, Routledge, New York.
*Consent form from Evan Pottenger attached.

Ethics & Mojo’s

Imagine you are in a car driving at 60 km’s per hour, when some lunatic passes at least 20km’s faster than you. The more they speed the greater the chance of a dangerous collision right? Well it’s also the same with the new age of Journalism.  Burum & Quinn (2015, p.265) explain that speed involves risk. The speed at which journalists are expected to work and produce content has increased ten fold- mobile phones and technology are making it easier and quicker than ever before to send information out to audiences.

What legal issues can arise from this?

Mobile phones can be taken just about anywhere- the problems with this is that we don’t always know when we are being filmed, and depending on where you are in the world this could be perfectly legal or completely unethical.

243980047_194ee62c19_z
Paparazzi by Mike Schmid (CC BY-SA 2.0)

With the speed in which Journalists are having to upload their stories, they are bound to make some errors along the way.  Burum & Quinn (2015, p.266) reiterate the importance of knowledge and training in the field of ethics for the Journalists of today.

What is ethical training?

Many news organisations have their own code of ethics which they encourage.  One of the main unions in Australia for Journalists is the MEAA.  In their words they explain what is considered important in regards to ethics and the legalities for Journalists under their union.

Respect for truth and the public’s right to information are fundamental principles of journalism. Journalists search, disclose, record, question, entertain, comment and remember. They inform citizens and animate democracy. They scrutinise power, but also exercise it, and should be responsible and accountable.

In the speed in which the news is disseminated- especially now for mobile journalists, it must be ensured that ethics are also considered.  It doesn’t matter if you break the story first, if you also happen to break many laws whilst doing so.


References:

Burum, I, Quinn, S 2015, MOJO: The Mobile Journalism Handbook : How to Make Broadcast Videos with an iPhone or iPad, Focal Press, Burlington, MA.

Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance 2016, MEAA Journalist Code of Ethics, Media, Entertainment and Arts Alliance, date retrieved 2 October 2016, https://www.meaa.org/meaa-media/code-of-ethics/.

#ALJ710 Journalists are getting social

There is immense pressure on Journalists these days to be able to do it all.  Not only are they expected to competently write dense, feature articles, it is expected that they film and edit their own content and now- confidently handle the many new social media platforms that are thrust upon them (and us!) almost daily.

As to the notion of scoops and breaking news, a lot of tips or leads these days are from the web or what’s “trending” in social networks like Twitter. (Alejandro, 2010)

News these days is now being broken on social media, with tips and scoops coming from platforms such as Twitter.  Gone are the days of journalists having the time to form a full story.  We as an audience are determining how and when we get our news and because of this journalists are having to pick up the pace.  The risk of waiting means that journalists may be out-scooped by competitors or, even worse- a citizen journalist!

Check out a podcast I recorded of examples of how Twitter has been used to break major news stories from around the world.

What’s the problem with social media as a breaking news form?

The concern is, if anyone can break the news on social media- who are we to believe?

This new style of ‘citizen journalism’ can be a double edged sword at times and one of the clearest recent examples of this occurred on the site Reddit, as the search for the Boston Bombing suspect was taking place. Because of unchecked facts, a manhunt for the wrong man – who eventually wound up being found dead from an apparent suicide – began. (DeMers, 2013)

How can Journalists avoid making this mistake?

Verify, verify, verify
Aside from using reverse image searches. Steve Buttry (2013) wrote a comprehensive blog post on the ways in which Journalists can verify information from social media. He suggests the following:

  • Check the time of the tweet.
  • Check for photos that help validate the story.
  • Check the location of the user.
  • Check previous tweets to fill in the gaps in a story.
  • Attempt to connect with the user (phone, email) to validate information.

This list is by no means exhaustive, so check out the link for helpful tips from Buttry.

It is a journalist’s role to ensure that any information is fact-checked and verified before release.  But it’s clear that this does not always happen .


References:

Alejandro, J 2010, ‘Journalism in the age of Social Media’, Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper, University of Oxford, retrieved 23 August 2016, retrieved from : < https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Journalism%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Social%20Media.pdf >

DeMers, J 2013, ‘How Social Media Is Supporting a Fundamental Shift in Journalism’, The Huffington Post, weblog post, retrieved 23 August 2016, < http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jayson-demers/how-social-media-is-suppo_b_3239076.html >

Buttry, S 2013, ‘How to verify information from tweets: Check it out’, The Buttry Diary, weblog post, retrieved 20 August 2016, < https://stevebuttry.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/how-to-verify-information-from-tweets-check-it-out/ >

 

#ALJ710 Why you’ll never lose your mojo-Mobile Journalism is here to stay.

Do you have a smart-phone with a reliable internet connection? Congratulations, you too could become a mobile journalist!

Mojo offers ways for people to become more digitally literate and powerful across a wide range of media. Citizens can become empowered to live and work in more digitally literate communities and environments. (Burum & Quinn 2015, p11)

The benefits for the general public are clear, they are empowered and given a voice through the use of their smartphones.

Viasen Soobramoney from Independent Media South Africa has the opinion that all journalists should and will become mobile journalists. Soobramoney, who was behind the first mojo newsroom in South Africa,   explained that changing the opinions of those in a traditional newsroom was initially challenging- but it’s something that needs to be embraced to cope with the changing landscape (Scott 2016).

6332845721_f4042a8cf6_o
Filming in Teuton by Allissa Richardson (CC BY 2.0)

Logistically, mojo newsrooms are seeing the benefit of their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. Mojo’s are recording and editing content in a much quicker amount of time- essentially cutting out the middle man.  They don’t have to worry about expensive cameras and recording technology, or setting up bulky equipment, organising large crews, or travelling back to the newsroom to file and edit footage- it can now be done by one journalist, all on the one device.
Check out how one Teacher is inspiring her students through the use of MOJO:

A heart-warming tale from South Africa- Journalist Allissa Richardson set up a MOJO lab in South Africa, teaching 10 HIV-positive young women how to film and edit their own content on iPod’s:

In the worlds of the Zulu Princesses that I taught, many of the girls were trapped instead in cycles of violence, self-doubt and the urge to cry out — even when no one was listening. Then, along came the digital age, and a tiny device gave them a voice. (Richardson 2012, p24)

So it all sounds pretty positive- what’s the problem then?

Despite this technology being accessible to just about anyone, we can’t forget the fact that just because you can do something- doesn’t mean you should. Burum and Quinn (2015, p.12) explain that in the hands of an amateur- it would simply result in rubbish, useless content.

Another issue is that quality can potentially be compromised in an effort to get the content recorded and online as quickly as possible to break the news first. Burum and Quinn (2015, p.18) explain that this is not much of a concern; audiences will be happy to put up with something of average quality, if the topic itself is interesting and newsworthy.


References:

Burum, I, Quinn, S 2015, MOJO: The Mobile Journalism Handbook : How to Make Broadcast Videos with an iPhone or iPad, Focal Press, Burlington, MA.

Scott, C 2016, ‘How mobile journalism is rising in popularity with journalists around the world’, Journalism.co.uk, weblog post, 29 April, retrieved 18 August 2016, < https://www.journalism.co.uk/news/how-mobile-journalism-is-rising-in-popularity-around-the-world/s2/a633170/ >

Allissa Richardson’s MOJO Lab 2012, YouTube, Bryant and Allissa Richardson, 28 November, retrieved 18 August 2016, < https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rd2yJpekVhU >

Richardson, A 2012,’Mobile Journalism: a model for the future’,  Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 21 June, p24, retrieved 18 August 2016,   Vol. 29 Issue 10, Academic OneFile

 

#ALJ710 Come together, right now.

When we think of the idea of convergence, we generally think of it as the merging of two or more things.  But what does that mean for Journalism?  Holmes, Hadwin & Mottershead (2013,p210) describe it as “the coming together of different media platforms- for example tv and online.”

As a Gen-y’er it’s starting to get difficult to remember what life was like before all the technological advancements, and a world ruled by social media and the world wide web.  I have fond childhood memories of the weekend paper delivery- my family and I would sit around the table with breakfast, each of us reading a different section of The Herald Sun.

Nowadays I would rather Google current affairs on my iPhone/iPad or tune into the radio on my drive to work.  The daily newspaper that is delivered to my parents house often sits unopened for days and my Mum now proudly tells me of her online subscription to The Age and The Herald Sun.  It’s almost as if reading a physical Newspaper is too much commitment- our lives are so full and busy, the thought of setting time aside to read the paper is a little too much. And why would we when we have this third arm attached to us, where we can reach the news 24/7?

nnfptam7kek5khuyb3st
2014, ‘Man on Toilet on iPhone’. Source: Gizmodo

News outlets have been forced to adapt or simply bust.  Our changing requirements as readers in combination with the saturation of technology is now defining what we are given by the news organisations. Kolodzy (2012, p.1) explains that the youth of today are favouring social media platforms such as Facebook, Google, YouTube, Twitter and Instant messaging as a way to receive news.  And, as one of those “youths” I would have to agree.  My main sources of news come from articles I click on that have been shared on Facebook or Twitter or perhaps when I’ve Googled something that was currently topical.  I would not consider logging onto the online version of The Herald Sun to cipher through the articles of the day.
‘If Audiences have to multitask via Twitter and Facebook and YouTube, then today’s journalists have to multitask there as well’ (Kolodzy 2012, p.5).  Journalists are now expected to go above and beyond a simple researching and writing task but now have to be competent and confident across many digital media platforms too.

newspapers-300x300
2013, ‘Are Newspapers dying?’. Source: Marketinomics

So what does this mean for print? Well currently nearly 90% of many print Newspapers profits are coming from advertising revenue .   In terms of online- Paywalls, increasing the price of single print copies and subscriptions has been found to stabilise and even increase revenue in some successful cases (Rogers 2015).  So they aren’t dead just yet, they are simply forced to make their money in more creative ways.


References:

Holmes, T., Hadwin, S., Mottershead, G., 2013, ‘Chapter 8, Convergence’, The 21st Century Journalism Handbook, p210

Devoe, N 2015, ’17 Things Your Parents Had To Do Before The Internet’, seventeen, weblog post, 13 February, retrieved 3 August, <http://www.seventeen.com/life/friends-family/a24295/crazy-things-parents-did-before-the-internet/&gt;

Kolodzy, J 2012, ‘What’s old is new, what’s new is old’, ‘Practicing Convergence Journalism’, Routledge, p.1&5

Rogers, T 2015, ‘Are Newspapers Dying or Adapting in the Age of Digital News Consumption?’, About News, weblog post, 16 November, retrieved 3 August 2016, < http://journalism.about.com/od/trends/a/papersdying.htm >

 

 

 

 

#ALC701 Sex, Law & Social Media

I recently asked a group of my girlfriends how many of them had received unsolicited “di*k pics” and was shocked when 4 out of 5 said they had- and often.  “It’s just part of the online dating thing, if you’re on these sites you kind of just expect it”, one said.   As someone who has been in a relationship for the past four years, I counted myself lucky for missing out on this dating right of passage.  That was until I opened my Instagram direct message one day to find the genitals of a stranger glaring back at me.   Many questions flooded my brain.  Did I display any behaviour that would make this stranger think I would be pleased by his message?  What kind of response was he hoping for? And also just general feelings of confusion and repulsion! (Sorry random internet man!)

output_dGU7TF
A super accurate representation of receiving an unsolicited di*k pic on Instagram.

I essentially felt a little violated, and concerned that this was such a commonplace event, with little to no repercussions for the sender.  Let’s be honest- there is nothing wrong with two consenting adults sending and receiving these type of messages, and of course there are people who enjoy a surprise flash of genitals on their smart phone, but what is the go when it is completely unsolicited and unwanted?

After a little research I found I wasn’t the only one questioning this. ‘It’s essentially cyber-flashing, the real world’s online equivalent, and should be treated as seriously’ (Thompson 2016).  Thompson mentions that flashing in public can carry a sentence of up to two years in prison in the UK. However ‘cyber-flashing’ and where it stands in a legal sense is still up for contention.  According to the BBC, a woman in the UK reported an incident to police that took place on a train (Bell 2015).  Lorraine Crighton-Smith was sent two photos of a strangers genitals on her phone via the Apple Airdrop function.  The case was investigated but could not be taken further due to the lack of evidence considering Crighton-Smith did not press accept on the images.  So other than cases where there is a distinct lack of evidence to work with; why is it taking us so long to clearly distinguish where the law stands on this issue?

Dr Deb Waterhouse-Watson (Twitter on Trial: Digital Media and the Law 2014) explains that ‘Law is a heavy and slow moving creature, party because it needs to be.’ She goes on to say that the Law itself needs to take into account all the issues surrounding digital media to therefore make any changes or to put laws in place.

Some people are now beginning to take matter into their own hands, to hold those accountable for their online harassment, whilst the law struggles to catch up with the rapid growth of technology and digital media.

Clemintine Ford is one of those people. In 2015 Ford contacted a Man’s employer after he left a derogatory comment on her public Facebook account, which then led to his dismissal.  ‘There are basically no consequences for men who behave like this, so we have to start making consequences for them’, Ford explains (cited in SMH 2015).

5013141112_dff3c6f4f1_z
fired by Sean MacEntee (CC BY 2.0)

But what happens when the photos that are circulating are of yourself and without your knowledge or consent? In 2014, the state of Victoria made it a punishable offence- one that could result in up to two years of imprisonment for perpetrators (Henry 2015). This online sharing of intimate photos taken by a current or ex-partner without consent -is essentially a crime of the modern age.  One that is greatly influenced by the rapid expansion of technology and social media.  Up until the last decade or so, it has been something we haven’t really had to consider, but now with the accessibility of photo sharing services, it is more common than ever.

The nature of technology is progressive- forever evolving and always thinking ahead, whereas the Law only changes when it needs to catch up.  Does this mean we just accept the odd moment of digital ‘harassment’ in exchange for freedom on the internet?

 


References:

Thompson, L 2016, ‘#DickPics are no joke: cyber-flashing, misogyny and online dating’, The Conversation, weblog post, 3 February,  retrieved 1 August 2016, <https://theconversation.com/dickpics-are-no-joke-cyber-flashing-misogyny-and-online-dating-53843&gt;

Bell, S 2015, ‘Police investigate ‘first cyber-flashing’ case’, BBC, 13 August, retrieved 1 August 2016, <http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-33889225&gt;

Kosoff, M 2015, ‘How to use AirDrop, Apple’s incredible feature that lets you share pictures, video and more with nearby friends’, Business Insider, 18 October, retrieved 2 August 2016, <http://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-use-apple-airdrop-2015-10/?r=AU&IR=T&gt;

Twitter on Trial: Digital Media and the Law 2014, YouTube, Dr Deb Waterhouse-Watson, 7 September, retrieved 2 August, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7b9xXw0ymg&gt;

Levy, M 2015, ‘Hotel worker Michael Nolan sacked over Facebook post to Clementine Ford’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 December, retrieved 2 August, <http://www.smh.com.au/national/hotel-worker-michael-nolan-sacked-over-facebook-post-to-clementine-ford-20151130-glc1y4.html&gt;

Henry, N 2015, ‘Factbox: Revenge porn laws in Australia and beyond’, SBS, 15 October, retrieved 2 August, <http://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/article/2015/07/13/factbox-revenge-porn-laws-australia-and-beyond&gt;